Charles Dickens was not the first urban novelist, but he was the most successful in exposing the social ills of Victorian London. Rather than attacking his readers directly, Dickens criticizes society in an entertaining way to make his call for social reform more palatable to those who have the power to make a change. In Great Expectations, A Christmas Carol, and Oliver Twist, Dickens comments on individuals striving for social betterment under social pressures and external forces such as poverty. Likewise, he conveys his central message through his protagonists that no one is inborn with criminality and one's moral worth does not correlate with one’s socioeconomic status. As a social commentator, Dickens criticizes society’s unfair judgement of the poor, their harsh working conditions, and the misery that a metropolis like London wrought on the average citizen during the Industrial Revolution. Dickens never accuses one person or one institution in his works, but rather, he criticizes the society as a whole for the degeneration of humanity.
As the Industrial Revolution produced dehumanizing effects on people in British society, it also brought scientific developments that were crucial in solving the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle. This watery region extends from Bermuda to Miami, and then to Puerto Rico, and is said to contain supernatural phenomenon such as “glowing water,” “fireballs,” “erratic compasses,” and “strange pulling forces.” Starting with Christopher Columbus in the late 1400s, words of unusual events spread among frightened crews and captains and soon the area gained a dangerous and peculiar reputation. Since then, many other famous tragedies have occurred in the Bermuda Triangle including Mystery of 19, Scorpion, Sylvia, Sulphur Queen, Mary Celeste, Star Tiger, and USS Cyclops. From overlooked weather, magnetic variation, structural failure, and inexperienced crew members to the simple matter of ocean currents, scientists have proposed dozen of theories to solve the mystery. As more effective communication and advanced technology developed in modern days, a plethora of evidence shows that this watery region was no more treacherous than any other area, and the Bermuda Triangle is merely a “manufactured mystery.”
Major Works Consulted:
Baumann, Elwood D. The Devil’s Triangle. New York: F. Watts, 1976.
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. London: Penguin, 2003.
---. Oliver Twist. London: Penguin, 2003.
Kusche, Larry. The Bermuda Triangle Solved. New York: Prometheus, 1995.
“Charles Dickens.” Wikipedia.